When you have your songs listed in a song list, it’s time to analyze them for their musical material and potential classroom use.
When we analyze a song, we learn the material forward and backward. We approach it from several different musical and pedagogical angles so we have a thorough understanding of the material and how the musical elements interact.
If you do work as a wind, strings, or choral conductor, would you ever start a piece without doing a score study? Probably not.
Since the repertoire is the curriculum, it’s worth the time and effort to dive into the details of our songs.
Here is a simplified guide to analyzing a folk song. You’ll find more detailed methods out there, and I encourage you to pursue whichever level of thoroughness that would serve your students best.
I’ve made a snappy cheat sheet you can use in this process. It’s available in the Resources page here!
Let’s jump in.
Two Analysis Uses: Classroom Use and Theoretical Analysis:
There are three major categories we look at when analyzing a song. One is the “bones” of the song, including its form, rhythmic content, melodic content. This is the analysis side.
The next category is how we can use it in the classroom. Is it useful for teaching any specific melodic or rhythmic concepts? Are there any games associated with it? What about movement activities? This side lists all the ways the material might breathe in your classroom.
The third category is all the “other” things that are helpful to include. This category includes additional verses, game directions, and stick notation.
We’ll use Frosty Weather as an example as we walk through the steps to take when analyzing a song for your classroom.
You can find this song (and plenty more) in the Folk Song Index page.
When we get into the weeds of analyzing a song, you’ll find a few variations in the details from community to community.
This is my personal process, but be aware it may not be the same as other Kodaly-Inspired teachers.
In general, most musicians who do a folk song analysis are interested in the song’s melodic content, rhythmic content, form, and origin. Many musicians also prefer to include cadences, length of phrases, motifs, melodic contour, and separate melodic and rhythmic forms.
What to Include in an Analysis:
Rhythmic Content: List all the rhythms in the song. Some teachers do this by the largest beat unit to the smallest. Some do from the smallest to the largest. Some teachers leave this step out for songs with younger grades. The choice is yours!
Toneset: List the solfege syllables in the song. Circle, underline, box, or find some other way to note the ending pitch. It’s helpful to include spaces between the solfege syllables when they are skips apart.
Scale: Looking at your collection of solfege pitches, determine the scale of the song. Your ending pitch will give you a good hint as to the tonality. Songs may be “chordal” (stepwise) or “tonic” (skips). A scale may also be modal, diatonic, or in a minor scale.
Form: Look at each phrase of the song. Are they similar? The same? Different? List the form in capital letters.
Country or Culture of Origin: Where is the song from? Who sang (/sings) it and why? What meaning do the lyrics hold? The more specific you can be, the better. For example, “African folk song” may be technically accurate, but we would get a richer cultural context by listing the specific people group within the specific country of Africa. Sometimes upon further research you may find that a song was not intended for use outside its community and needs to be taken out of your song list - perhaps it is a song with a spiritual or personal connection. We do our students and our global community a service when we treat cultural materials, such as music, with respect and acknowledgement of their origin.
In Frosty Weather, we have four unique rhythms to list. Notice that the quarter rest is included in that list.
The toneset uses five pitches, including a skip. The resting pitch is do, so do is bold.
Since we have five pitches, they include a skip, and rest on do, our scale is do pentatonic.
When we look at the form, you could make an argument for AABA if you were to look at shorter phrases and only focus on the skeletal melody. However, through the eyes of a child, the slight variations in the melody and the length of the phrase make a case for AB.
The origin of the song is Ireland, and it is a song with a game. Both are important details.
This is the fun part.
Look through the song for rhythmic elements, melodic elements, or anything else that stands out to you as a teaching tool.
As with the analysis portion, different teachers have varying levels of detail they put into these categories. Here is a simple collection of things to consider.
Rhythm: List the rhythmic element that could be taught with the song. We want to look for new rhythmic elements that are surrounded by known elements, so be sure to look at the context of the whole phrase. For young students, you can also include steady beat, rhythm of the words, and fast / slow in this category.
Melody: Similarly, when we list melodic elements that can be used in the classroom, we want them to come before and after a series of known pitches. You can also add high / low in this category.
Game Type: Teachers tend to have their own classifications for games. Game identifications such as acting out, circle, chasing, choosing, dance, finger play, partner, or winding will get you started.
Other: What other possibilities do you see with this song? How might it live and breathe in your classroom? This is where teachers can get creative and detailed in their folk song analysis. Here are some ideas to get you started with this section:
Do you associate it with a book? Would it be useful during a specific season? What is the theme or subject material? Some songs are useful for teaching the notes on the staff. Some songs fit well on barred instruments because of their sticking pattern and melodic contour. Some songs may inspire a student-created ostinato activity. Some songs may have natural phrases or words you could extract for rhythmic building blocks. Some songs may have intervals and a pitch collection that fall nicely on a C or F recorder.
Now let’s look at Frosty Weather.
Even though this song uses five unique rhythmic elements, I don’t see a full phrase that would lend itself to extracting a specific rhythm. The first two measures could be a good example of steady beat, but when students continue the song they’ll run into beat subdivisions that may be confusing. Measures two and three use “ta-mi” (dotted quarter followed by an eighth note), but that displaced sixteenth note isn’t surrounded by smaller beat subdivisions that would help make it obvious to a child.
When we look at the melody, we see three clear instances of the “s-m-r-d” pattern. That’s a great melody to extract here. The one measure without that pattern (measure 3) has pitches that students already know and will recognize easily because of their interval order (s-m-s-l).
The game listed in the source is a circle game, so that’s what I put in this category.
I have my own activity I use with this song that differs from the source activity. Since I use this song to work on open and closed space, that goes in the “other” category.
With an analysis and classroom use complete, there are just a few more details to check off.
Source: Our songs don’t exist in a vacuum, so it’s important to list where you found your materials. If a song is from a printed book, I like to list the book information and page number. If I learned the song aurally from a primary or trusted secondary source, I list the name of the informant, the date, and location the song was shared.
Game Directions: If a song has any games, dances, or activities associated with it, be sure to include those directions. If I have my own variant of the game, I like to include it along with the game listed in the song’s source.
Rhythmic and Melodic Notation: This may be one of the more tedious steps to the process. List out the rhythm of the song in stick notation. As you rewrite the song, pay attention to the phrases, and shoot for one line per phrase. Under the stick notation write the solfege syllables.
Jill Trinka has this song notated in one of her books. I’ve included her book information and the page number at the bottom of my printed music as the source.
There are two sets of game directions here. One is the game from the source. The other is my own variation. I want to include both so I can reference them.
The stick notation shows the rhythmic and melodic content separated by phrases. Notice that the last portion of the song is spoken, so I’ve included the rhythmic notation without a melody.
By the time you’re done with this analysis, you will know the song forward and backward, upside down, and around.
Even though this is a simplified version of the process, it takes a sizable amount of time to complete. I encourage you to consider the level of detail that works with you and your students the best, and leave the rest out.
Happy analyzing, and happy teaching!
I LOVE talking about music education, so if you’re into it, shoot me a discussion topic or question. I’d love to hear from you.